Doha Forum

15th December 2019

2nd Day in Doha, Qatar

Doha Forum
concluded on Sunday 15 December following two days of discussion and debate
among the leading policy makers of the world, who had reconvened in Qatar for
this year’s 19th edition, under the theme, Reimagining Governance in a
Multipolar World.

A summary
of the Doha Forum day two sessions is below: In partnership with Hamad bin
Khalifa University, the second day of Doha Forum commenced with a special
session on how global and domestic policy is increasingly affected by financial
markets, weather events, terrorism and sudden foreign policy shifts. The
capacity of governments to respond to these events with agility and resilience
is key to effective governance.

Professor
Zeger van der Waal from the National University of Singapore articulated how
“resilience is forged and mastered in times of crisis.” During the session,
H.E. Achim Steiner, Administrator at United Nations Development Programme,
emphasized the legitimacy of public institutions, stating “public institutions
should be capable of holding individuals in power accountable for their
unlawful actions”.

In
partnership with the Ministry of Defense, this session explored the security
threats facing the world, from the collapse of traditional modes of conflict
from inter-state to intra-state, the changing nature of traditional alliances,
to shifts in political and economic norms, and threats and opportunities
arising from the digital age. H.E. Khalid bin Mohamed Al Attiyah, Deputy Prime
Minister and Minister of State for Defense Affairs, Qatar, finding that “the old
method of creating external enemies for internal cohesion is over.”

Panelists
focused on the need for dialogue and cooperation, as well as an international
system of rules to control any military arms race, articulated by H.E. Dr.
Hulusi Akar, Minister for Defense, Turkey “from a humanitarian point of view,
it’s important to put into place rules and regulations to control the military
arms race, otherwise it’ll cause a problem not just for one or two countries,
but for the world.

Hosted by
the Qatar Investment Authority, this session highlighted an upcoming era in
finance where profit at any cost is no longer socially acceptable, while social
impact and environment protection investment opportunities continue to grow. On
a global level, the launch of the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the
Paris Climate Agreement illustrate how investors can act as innovators.
However, there are challenges and the world needs a clearer picture of
standards and definitions. Commenting on the discussion, Mansoor bin Ebrahim Al
Mahmoud, CEO, Qatar Investment Authority, spoke of how “44% of our
infrastructure projects had zero emissions, showing our commitment to positive
impact.

This is a
serious issue we are trying to solve and have been investing in companies that
prioritize this field.” He continued “yesterday, we signed a MoU with
Volkswagen for R&D using autonomies electric cars for public transportation
here in Qatar.” Conducted in partnership with RAND Corporation, this session
discussed the risks and costs associated with the large-scale use of military
force, whereby international rivalries have come to be characterized by
increasingly sophisticated, wide-ranging and integrated campaigns using
non-military instruments.

Panelists
examined critical questions surrounding rules which can help prevent or
mitigate armed conflict, with Andrey Kortunov, Director General from the
Russian International Affairs Council commenting “what we need is to create a
critical mass of stakeholders, interested in universal regimes that can build a
multipolar context”. Dr. Stefanie Babst, Head, Strategic Analysis Capability
from NATO, further stressed upon the necessity of political will in creating
and developing rules of engagement for non-military conflict.

With social
media increasingly in the spotlight and much debate around regulating digital
content, companies have struggled to develop and enforce appropriate standards
to address issues ranging from proliferating hate speech, incitement to cause
harm, a rise in xenophobic, racist, and sexist language in online interactions.
Panelists discussed current and proposed efforts to monitor, regulate and
curate content online.

This
included how misinformation, hatred and violence on digital platforms, are
defined, and who defines them. Zoe Darmé, Manager, Global Affairs and
Governance at Facebook spoke of the importance of transparency in decision
making, mentioning Facebook’s proposed Oversight Board which will be comprised
of external experts who will examine complaints. Mr. Jacob Mchangama, Executive
Director, Justita talked of “France, the UK, and the European Union following
suit with Germany in holding social media companies responsible for not
removing flagged content.

Unfortunately,
authoritarian countries like Russia and Belarus are copying & pasting this
law into their legal code”.  Addressing
the proposed regulation of digital content, Ben Smith, Editor-in-Chief,
BuzzFeed News, said “right-to-speech doesn’t mean right-to-reach” and used the
example of Reddit which, Smith continued, “employs an editorial oversight at a
top-level without censoring anyone. That’s where the compromise lies.”

This
session highlighted obstacles to the implementation of universal human rights.
H.E. Dr. Danilo Türk, Emeritus Professor of International Law at University of
Ljubljana, explained that during times of crisis, governments take selective
political decisions which usually do not include human rights, and as a result,
these are often widely abused in times of crisis. Ms. Irene Khan, Director-General
of the International Development Law Organization, discussed the importance of
promoting women’s rights and achieving gender equality, stating:

“This
is an exciting and encouraging time for women, as women are in the streets
fighting for their rights. There have been changes in laws and legislation to
ensure women are given their rights, yet women are still not safe at work and
in their homes, and they still face discrimination across different sectors…
There will be no progress or development until or unless women are given their
due rights.” This panel held with Qatar Financial Centre, explored Islamic
finance, now one of the fastest growing segments of the global financial system
as it offers a safer and more ethical alternative to conventional banking. The
industry’s growth has been buoyed by recent investments in infrastructure, as
well as Islamic financial certificates or sukuks, capital market products, and
the adoption of financial technology.

However,
Islamic banks continue to face obstacles in integrating with the global banking
environment. The panelists reaffirmed the need for consistent product
structures and investment practices, accessibility across markets, and
regulation capabilities. These factors are particularly important as the sector
expands. During the session, Yousuf Mohamed Al-Jaida, CEO, Qatar Financial
Centre, stated “Our vision is to reach out to Malaysia and Turkey to create a
consortium for Islamic finance activities. We believe that the three of us can
come together to dominate the Islamic Finance market globally.”

The panel
debated the possibility and likelihood of peace in Yemen, and the role of the
United Nations in ameliorating the humanitarian crisis. The panelists further
discussed how distrust between the warring parties and the renewed fighting
harm any confidence-building measures. While commenting on the Yemeni conflict,
Saeed Thabit, Yemen Bureau Chief at Al Jazeera Arabic, explained that there is
no political or military solution to the Yemeni conflict in the near future,
until external actors stop supporting their proxies operating in the country.
The panel examined the balance of power in Yemen after five years of war, the
influence of international parties’ support of various factions within the
country, and potential scenarios for a political solution.

In
partnership with Qatar Free Zone Authority, this discussion centered around the
steady increase in investment in free zones , due to their proximity to
logistics hubs and corridors as well as one-stop services that facilitate ease
of doing business. There are, today, more than 5,000 free zones across 147
economies. This number is likely to increase as countries realize the positive
effects these zones have in attracting investments, facilitating capital flows,
and stimulating the local economy. Qatar’s free zones alone have attracted
investments worth 1bn QAR from major international companies and led to the
establishment of new partnerships between companies across diverse fields.

H.E. Reem
Al Mansoori, Shura Council Member, Qatar, and Assistant Undersecretary for
Digital Society Development Sector, Ministry of Transport and Communications,
commented on Qatar’s burgeoning startup scene. She spoke of Qatar’s “Last
October during QITCOM, we attracted a large number of startups from all over
the world. We offer them the environment they need for their businesses to
flourish.

We have
great infrastructure, alongside a collaboration platform with academia,
universities and research, which will spur innovation. [And] in October we
announced our biggest infrastructure project, which is TASMU’s Smart Qatar
Central Platform that will be available for global services.” The proliferation
of new technologies and media, including social media platforms like facebook
and twitter, along with the manipulation of facts and the rise of
disinformation and ‘fake news’ has undermined the authority of governments,
experts, the conventional media, and very concept of objective truth.

Dipayan
Ghosh, a Co-Director for Digital Platforms and Democracy Project, Shorenstein
Fellow at Harvard Kennedy School emphasized that “the primary responsibility
lies with governments with a political will to inform the public. We are not
going to see any voluntary action on behalf of companies to do anything about
this problem. We should not expect them to act in the public interest by
addressing economic overreaches or content as it will affect their
record-breaking profits.”

Held with
Foreign Policy Magazine, the panel reviewed the manner in which these trends
are giving rise to political polarization, undermining social stability,
fueling the rise of demagogues and threatening democracy itself. Dr. Sarah
Kreps, Professor from Cornell University agreed that “there is room for digital
literacy”, to which H.E. Louise Mushikiwabo responded stating “there is a
pressing need for education among the common man consuming news through the
various platforms”.

In
partnership with the United Nations World Tourism Organization and the Qatar
National Tourism Council, this plenary reviewed the effect of geopolitics on
tourism. H.E. Mr. Akbar Al Baker, Secretary General of QNTC lauded tourism and
its importance as a way to build bridges and develop understanding between
otherwise disparate peoples, especially sports tourism, noting the success of
the Gulf Cup in bringing together fans from across the GCC.

HRH
Princess Dana Firas, President of the Board, Petra National Trust, UNESCO
Goodwill Ambassador said, “Daesh in Syria is trying to erase connections
between people, erase a narrative that brings people together”. Panelists also
spoke of how governments have sometimes weaponized tourism, blocking tourist
flows, while terrorist groups target tourists and heritage sites for maximum
impact, stoking fear globally and economic hardship locally or regionally. This
session explored what can be done to reduce the negative impacts of conflict on
travel and tourism, positing that multiparty collaboration with the public and
private sectors, international organizations, and non-governmental
organizations was the most effective way to bolster tourism as a driver of
peace.

In
partnership with the McCain Institute, the session examined the global order in
the decades following World War II, when the United States enjoyed a period of
unprecedented global leadership. Its hegemony was rooted in economic power and
military might, and America was a hub of technological innovation and an
imperfect but recognized beacon of freedom for many around the world. Panelists
discussed the US’ current position in the world order, with all panelists
agreeing with Mr. Thomas Bossert, Chief Strategy Officer, Trinity Cyber, that
“there needs to be an avenue for redress in international arena”. Ms. Amy Pope,
Associate Fellow, Chatham House, focused on the importance of multipolarity,
finding that “another four years of President Trump would be a threat to
multipolarity … people are forgetting why we needed those institutions in the
first place”.

However,
she suggested that the current American administration is forcing a
re-examining of the existing global order, which has not been adapted to deal
with newer geo-political realities. Conducted with the Bill and Melinda Gates
Foundation, the session highlighted that despite efforts to date, climate
change is already a reality. Increasingly, attention is turning to how the
world can adapt to a new paradigm of a hotter planet with more extreme weather
conditions. H.E. Fahad Al Attiya, Ambassador and Chairman, Qatar National Food
Security Programme posited: “the knowledge and expertise to tackle climate
change exist – what we need is wisdom. There are incumbent structures and
industries that want business to continue as usual, as long as their profit is
not impacted. The question becomes – should we continue to make it profitable
for them?” The panel further explored how the public and private sectors can
better collaborate and implement innovative solutions to address current
climate challenges.

Alongside
the Wilson Center, this session reviewed political and socioeconomic
developments in the MENA region and how they have slowed economic growth,
decreased the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI), constrained local
investment, and led to increased unemployment. According to the World Bank, the
youth unemployment rate in the MENA region is among the highest in the world,
with women’s labor force participation among the lowest. Ms. Roya Mahboob, CEO,
Digital Citizen Fund in Afghanistan believes “we need more women role models in
different areas like technology and engineering to prove that women are capable
of achieving anything, if they get the right opportunity.”

The session
introduced The Wilson Center’s new report, “Ready for Work: An Analysis of
Workforce Asymmetries in the Middle East and North Africa,” and addressed
questions regarding the skills mismatch, the education system, technical and
vocational training, the private sector, the role of entrepreneurship and the
problem of endemically low female labor force participation.

Held with
ORF, the panel addressed how interdependence has shaped the global community.
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, supply chains and innovation systems have
been exported to developing communities, creating symbiotic economic
relationships.  In many ways, this
guaranteed peace and security. With the ubiquity of technology and a more
multilateral approach, the 21st century is being defined entirely differently.
Rachel Rizzo, Adjunct Fellow, Transatlantic Security Program, Center for a New
American Security, articulated:

“we are
going towards a world where the internet is going to be fragmented and will
look different in different places. You want to have rules of the road that
people can follow… We’re building the airplane as we’re flying in it”.  The session’s moderator, Samir Saran,
President, Observer Research Foundation, concluded by stating: “The mobile in
your hand allows you to join the debate at any time. It’s our job as users to
continue to defy states that try to censor us. May each of you use your mobile
phones well today.”

In
partnership with the Stimson Centre, the plenary session reviewed how the
international institutions built since 1945 to help nations manage and resolve
their problems peacefully and together are being weakened to a degree not seen
since their founding. Ibrahim Gambari, Chairman, Savannah Center for Diplomacy,
stated “we need to build a coalition of the willing but also the unwilling. We
must all fight back against this attack on multilateralism.

In the face
of these global challenges there are numerous divisions and discrepancies
within and across societies along racial, gender, socioeconomic, and other
lines, with the debate highlighting how to engage and explore novel approaches
to improve the architecture of global governance.

H.E. Ban
Ki-moon, Deputy Chair, The Elders, Former Secretary-General, United Nations,
found that with the plethora of issues confronting societies, “there is not a
single country, however powerful or resourceful, that can do it alone”.
Rosemary DiCarlo, Under Secretary-General for Political Affairs, UN, conceded
that the UN does not communicate its successes or efforts well enough, saying
“We need to do a much better job at telling our story.

We need to showcase our efforts behind the scenes. We’re not just
working in Syria, Yemen and Somalia, we are also preventing conflicts.

UN
Secretary General closes Doha Forum

HE Prime
Minister and HE Deputy Prime Minister,

Minister of
Foreign Affairs attend closing

Doha Forum
Award for outstanding achievement

in
diversity, dialogue and diplomacy announced

His
Excellency the Prime Minister, Minister of Interior, Sheikh Abdullah bin
Khalifa Al Thani and His Excellency the Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of
Foreign Affairs, Sheikh Mohammad Abdulrahman Al Thani attended tonight the
closing session of the 2018 Doha Forum. The session featured a keynote by His
Excellency the Secretary General of the United Nations Mr. Antonio Guterres who
closed the Forum on a hopeful note, remarking:

“Despite
times of chaos and confusion, and a deficit in trust, I see winds of hope
around the world.” In the context of historic peace agreements in the Horn of
Africa over the last year, a peace deal in South Sudan after years of war, and
initiatives and actions for peace in the Korean peninsula, Guterres stated: “Hope
blooming elsewhere. Commitments to peace in Colombia. Strengthened cooperation
in Central Asia. Progress in resolving differences between Greece and the
former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. UN peacekeeping missions in West Africa
successfully concluding after years of work. And of course, hundreds of
millions of people lifted out of extreme poverty across the world over the past
three decades.”

The closing also witnessed the announcement of the Doha Forum Award
which will be given for the first time in 2019 to outstanding achievements to
diversity, dialogue and diplomacy, and will be worth half a million US Dollars.
The annual policy gathering, held under the Patronage of HH Sheikh Tamim bin
Hamad Al Thani Amir of the State of Qatar, ended after two days of
thought-provoking discussions around the world’s most pressing challenges.

Qatar
announces half a billion US$ in funds to UN agencies

Qatar
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Qatar Fund for Development create framework
with UN to support 10 of its agencies

Agreements
signed on sidelines of Doha Forum include funding and establishment of Doha
presence for several UN programs

Qatar’s
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Qatar Fund for Development today signed
agreements with multiple United Nations agencies to support humanitarian,
counter-terrorism and relief programs around the world. The multi-year
assistance to ten UN agencies amounts to USD 500 million, including 28 million
to the UN Development Program (UNDP), 8 million annually between 2019 and 2023
to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), 4 million
annually to UNICEF and 15 million annually to the Security Council’s Counter
Terrorism Committee (CTC). Qatar will also provide critical support to UNRWA,
which received a strong blow this year after international funding was
withdrawn, through a commitment of USD 16 million annually over the next two
years. Other agencies that will benefit from Qatar’s support include the World
Food Program, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Special
Purpose Trust Fund (SPTF) and Department of Political Affairs. The signings
were witnessed by His Excellency the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of
Foreign Affairs, Sheikh Mohammed bin Abdulrahman Al-Thani and His Excellency Mr.
Antonio Guterres, Secretary General of the United Nations.

Commenting
on the signings HE Sheikh Al-Thani said, “We are pleased today to reinforce the
importance of the UN and the work it does in alleviating the suffering of
people around the world, in addition to achieving peace, security and
sustainable development. The continued cooperation and coordination between
countries, the UN and its various agencies is beneficial to millions of
individuals around the world, and we in Qatar greatly value this role.” He
added, “We also appreciate the Secretary General’s efforts to reform the UN,
and emphasize our support to the announced 2030 goals. Qatar considers itself a
partner that is responsible for supporting the achievement of all sustainable
development goals as well as fighting terrorism.”

HE Mr.
Guterres remarked, “Today’s development is a quantum leap in the relationship
between Qatar and the UN. Today Qatar is a structural partner to the United
Nations. The support to UNRWA, in particular, comes at a critical time. UNRWA
has faced many challenges this year and thanks to nations such as Qatar it will
survive. For that I would like to make a special expression of gratitude.”
Qatar is ranked as the first Arab and sixth international contributor to global
joint funds. Through institutions such as the Qatar Fund for Development, it
implements external aid projects and works to achieve inclusive and sustainable
development, by addressing priority issues of education, health and economic
empowerment.

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