Kashmir Caged: A Fact-Finding Report

kashmir 3

Jean Drèze, Kavita Krishnan, Maimoona Mollah and Vimal Bhai

We spent five days (9-13 August 2019) traveling
extensively in Kashmir. Our visit began on 9 August 2019  four days after the Indian government
abrogated Articles 370 and 35A, dissolved the state of Jammu and Kashmir, and
bifurcated it into two Union Territories.

When we arrived in Srinagar on 9 August, we found the
city silenced and desolated by curfew, and bristling with Indian military and
paramilitary presence. The curfew was total, as it had been since 5th August.
The streets of Srinagar were empty and all institutions and establishments were
closed (shops, schools, libraries, petrol pumps, government offices, banks).
Only some ATMs and chemists’ shops  and
all police stations  were open. People
were moving about in ones and twos here and there, but not in groups.

We travelled widely, inside and outside Srinagar  far beyond the small enclave (in the centre
of Srinagar) where the Indian media operates. In that small enclave, a semblance
of normalcy returns from time to time, and this has enabled the Indian media to
claim that life in Kashmir is back to normal. Nothing could be further from the

We spent five days moving around and talking to hundreds
of ordinary people in Srinagar city, as well as villages and small towns of
Kashmir. We spoke to women, school and college students, shopkeepers,
journalists, people who run small businesses, daily wage labourers, workers and
migrants from UP, West Bengal and other states. We spoke to Kashmiri Pandits
and Sikhs who live in the Valley, as well as Kashmiri Muslims.

Everywhere, we were cordially received, even by people
who were very angry about the situation or sceptical of our purpose. Even as
people expressed their pain, anger, and sense of betrayal against the
Government of India, they extended warmth and unstinting hospitality to us. We
are deeply moved by this.

Except for the BJP spokesperson on Kashmir Affairs, we
did not meet a single person who supported the Indian government’s decision to
abrogate Article 370. On the contrary, most people were extremely angry, both
at the abrogation of Article 370 (and 35A) and at the manner in which it had
been done.

Anger and fear were the dominant emotions we encountered
everywhere. People expressed their anger freely in informal conversation, but
no-one was willing to speak on camera. Anyone who speaks up is at risk of
persecution from the government.

Many told us that they expected massive protests to erupt
sooner or later (after restrictions were relaxed, after Eid, after 15 August,
or even later), and anticipated violent repression even if the protests were

A summary of our observations

There is intense and virtually unanimous anger in Kashmir
against the Indian government’s decision to abrogate Articles 370 and 35A, and
also about the way this has been done.

To control this anger, the government has imposed
curfew-like conditions in Kashmir. Except for some ATMs, chemists’ shops and
police stations, most establishments are closed for now.

The clampdown on public life and effective imposition of
curfew have also crippled economic life in Kashmir, that too at a time of the
BakrEid festival that is meant for abundance and celebration.

People live in fear of harassment from the government,
army or police. People expressed their anger freely in informal conversation,
but no-one was willing to speak on camera.

The Indian media’s claims of a rapid return to normalcy
in Kashmir are grossly misleading. They are based on selective reports from a
small enclave in the centre of Srinagar.

As things stand, there is no space in Kashmir for any
sort of protest, however peaceful. However, mass protests are likely to erupt
sooner or later.

Reactions To The Government’s Treatment of J&K

When our flight landed, and the airlines staff announced
that passengers could switch on our mobiles, the entire flight (with mostly
Kashmiris in it) burst into mocking laughter. “What a joke”, we could hear
people say  since mobile and landline
phones and internet have all been blocked since 5 August!

As soon as we set foot in Srinagar, we came across a few
small children playacting in a park. We could hear them say ‘Iblees Modi’.
‘Iblees’ means ‘Satan’.

The words we heard over and over from people about the
Government decisions on J&K were ‘zulm’ (oppression), ‘zyadti’
(excess/cruelty), and ‘dhokha’ (betrayal). As one man in Safakadal (downtown
Srinagar) put it, “The Government has treated us Kashmiris like slaves, taking
decisions about our lives and our future while we are captive. It’s like
forcing something down our throats while keeping us bound and gagged, with a
gun to our heads.”

In every lane of Srinagar city, every town, every
village, that we visited, we received an extensive schooling from ordinary
people, including school kids, on the history of the Kashmir dispute. They were
angry and appalled at the manner in which the Indian media was whitewashing
this history. Many said: “Article 370 was the contract between Kashmir’s
leadership and India’s. Had that contract not been signed, Kashmir would never
have acceded to India. With Article 370 gone, India no longer has any basis for
its claim over Kashmir.”

Reactions To The Abrogation Of Article 370 and 35A

A man in Guree village (Anantnag district) said: “Hamara
unse rishta Article 370 aur 35A se tha. Ab unhone apne hi paer par kulhadi mar
di hai. In Articles ko khatm kar diya hai. Ab to ham azad ho gaye hain.” (Our
relation with them (India) was through Article 370 and Article 35A. Now they
have themselves committed the folly of dissolving these Articles. So now we are
free.” The same man raised slogans of “We want freedom” followed by slogans of
“Restore Articles 370 and 35A.”

Many described Article 370 and 35A as Kashmir’s “pehchan”
(identity). They felt that the abrogation of these Articles is a humiliating
attack on Kashmir’s self-respect and identity.

“Normalcy”  Or
“Peace Of The Graveyard”?

Is the situation in Kashmir “normal” and “peaceful”? The
answer is an emphatic NO.

One young man in Sopore said: “This is bandook ki
khamoshi (the silence at gunpoint), kabristan ki khamoshi (the peace of the

The newspaper Greater Kashmir had one (front) page of
news and a sports page at the back: the two inside pages were full of
cancellation announcements of weddings or receptions!

Between 5-9 August, people had suffered for lack of food,
milk, and basic needs. People had been prevented even from going to hospitals
in case of sickness.

The Government claim is that only Section 144 has been
imposed, not “curfew”. But in reality, police vans keep patrolling Srinagar
warning people to “stay safe at home and not venture out during the curfew”,
and tell shops to close their shutters. They demand that people display “curfew
passes” to be allowed to move about.

All of Kashmir is under curfew. Even on Eid, the roads
and bazaars were silent and desolate. All over Srinagar, mobility is restricted
by concertina wires on streets, and massive paramilitary deployment. Even on
Eid, this was the case. In many villages, azaan was prohibited by the
paramilitary and people were forced to do namaaz prayers at home rather than
collectively at the mosque as it usual on Eid.

“It’s Army rule not Modi rule. There are more soldiers
here than people”, said a young baker at Watpura near Bandipora. His friend
added, “We’re afraid, because the army camp nearby keeps imposing impossible
rules. They insist we have to return within half an hour if we leave home. If
my kid isn’t well, and I have to take her to the hospital, it may take more
than half an hour. If someone visits their daughter who lives in next village,
they may take more than half hour to return. But if there’s any delay, they
will harass us.” The CRPF paramilitary is everywhere, outside nearly every home
in Kashmir. These are clearly not there to provide “security” to Kashmiris  on the contrary, their presence creates fear
for the people.

Protests, Repression, and Brutality

Some 10,000 people protested in Soura (Srinagar) on 9
August. The forces responded with pellet gun fire, injuring several. We
attempted to go to Soura on 10 August, but were stopped by a CRPF barricade. We
did see young protestors on the road that day as well, blockading the road.

We met two victims of pellet gun injuries in SMHS
hospital in Srinagar. The two young men (Waqar Ahmad and Wahid) had faces, arms
and torso full of pellets. Their eyes were bloodshot and blinded. Waqar had a
catheter in which the urine, red with blood from internal bleeding, could be
seen. Their family members, weeping with grief and rage, told us that the two
men had not been pelting stones. They had been peacefully protesting.

On 6 August, a graphic designer for the Rising Kashmir
newspaper, Samir Ahmad, (in his early 20s) had remonstrated with a CRPF man
near his home in the Manderbag area of Srinagar, asking him to allow an old man
to pass. Later the same day, when Samir opened the door to his house, CRPF
fired at him with a pellet gun, unprovoked. He got 172 pellets in his arm and
face near the eyes, but his eyesight is safe. It is clear that the pellet guns
are deliberately aimed at the face and eyes, and unarmed, peaceful civilians
standing at their own front doors can be targets.

At least 600 political leaders and civil society
activists are under arrest. There is no clear information on what laws are
invoked to arrest them, or where they are being held.

A very large number of political leaders are under house
arrest  it is impossible to ascertain how
many. We tried to meet CPIM MLA Mohd Yusuf Tarigami  but were refused entry into his home in
Srinagar, where he is being under house arrest.

Hundreds of boys and teens are being picked up from their
beds in midnight raids. The only purpose of these raids is to create fear.
Women and girls told us of molestation by armed forces during these raids.
Parents feared meeting us and telling us about the “arrests” (abductions) of
their boys. They are afraid of Public Security Act cases being filed. The other
fear is that the boys may be “disappeared” 
i.e killed in custody and dumped in mass graves of which Kashmir has a
grim history. As one neighbour of an arrested boy said, “There is no record of
these arrests. It is illegal detention. So if the boy “disappears”  i.e is killed in custody  the police/army can just say they never had
him in custody in the first place.”

But the protests are not likely to stop. A young man at
Sopore said: “Jitna zulm karenge, utna ham ubharenge” (The more you oppress us,
the more we will rise up) A familiar refrain we heard at many places was:
“Never mind if leaders are arrested. We don’t need leaders. As long as even a
single Kashmiri baby is alive, we will struggle.”

The Gag On Media

A journalist told us: “Newspapers are printing in spite
of everything. Without the internet, we do not get any feed from agencies. We
were reduced to reporting the J&K related developments in Parliament, from
NDTV! This is undeclared censorship. If Govt is giving internet and phone connectivity
to police but not to media houses what does it mean? We had some people come to
our offices, speaking on behalf of Army and CRPF, asking “Why are you
publishing photos of the curfew-affected streets?”

Kashmiri TV channels are completely closed and unable to
function. Kashmiri newspapers that carry the barest mention of protests (such
as the one on Soura) are made to feel the heat from the authorities.

Foreign press reporters told us that they are facing
restrictions on their movement by the authorities. Also, because of the lack of
internet, they are unable to communicate with their own main offices.

When we visited Press Enclave in Srinagar on 13 August,
we found the newspaper offices closed and the area deserted except for a few
stray journalists, and some CID men. One of the journalists told us that papers
could not be printed till at least 17 August, because they have run out of
newsprint which comes from Delhi. As mentioned above, one graphic designer
working with a newspaper suffered pellet gun injuries, during a completely
unprovoked attack by CRPF.

Does Kashmir Lack Development?

In an op-ed in the Times Of India (August 9, 2019),
former Foreign Secretary and Ambassador Nirupama Rao wrote: “A young Kashmiri
told this writer a few months ago her birthplace was in the “stone age”; that
in terms of economic development, Kashmir was two hundred years behind the rest
of India.”

We struggled to find this “backward”, “stone age” Kashmir
anywhere at all.

It is striking how in every Kashmiri village, we found
young men and women who go to college or University; speak Kashmiri, Hindi and
English fluently; and are able to argue points of Constitutional and
international law in relation to the Kashmir conflict with factual accuracy and
erudition. All four of the team members are familiar with villages in North
Indian states. This high level of education is extremely rare in any village
in, say, Bihar, UP, MP, or Jharkhand.

The homes in rural Kashmir are all pucca constructions.
We saw no shacks like the ones that are common in rural Bihar, UP, Jharkhand.

There are poor people in Kashmir, certainly. But the
levels of destitution, starvation and abject poverty seen in many North Indian
states, is simply absent in rural Kashmir.

The myth of the “backward” Kashmiri woman is perhaps the
biggest lie. Kashmiri girls enjoy a high level of education. They are
articulate and assertive. Of course, they face and resist patriarchy and gender
discrimination in their societies. But does BJP, whose Haryana CM and
Muzaffarnagar MLA speak of “getting Kashmiri brides” as though Kashmiri women
are property to be looted, have any right to preach feminism to Kashmir?
Kashmiri girls and women told us, “We are capable of fighting our own battles.
We don’t want our oppressors to claim to liberate us!”

The BJP Spokesperson’s “Warning”

We met BJP spokesperson on Kashmir affairs, Ashwani Kumar
Chrungoo at the office of Rising Kashmir, a Kashmir newspaper. The conversation
was initially cordial. He told us he had come to Kashmir from Jammu to persuade
people to support the abrogation of Article 370. His main argument was that
since the BJP had won a 46% vote share in J&K and had won an unprecedented
majority in Parliament, they had not only a right but a duty to keep their
promise of scrapping Article 370. “46% vote share  that’s a license”, he said.

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