K –2: A State of the Art Nuclear Power Plant starts Operations


by Mirza Kashif Baig

Pakistan became a Nuclear power almost 23 years ago and Pakistan’s nuclear program is focused on the safe and secure usage of nuclear power with particular emphasis on the peaceful usage of Nuclear energy to address its various socio-economic concerns. Foremost among which is the energy requirements of country which is currently a major concern for Pakistan, the demand and supply deficit in this regard is very high due to which Pakistan is investing heavily in the production of clean energy  in the form of civil nuclear power plants. As Pakistan is undergoing major environmental change and is among the top countries to be affected by global warming, clean energy is our top priority. Karachi was the first Pakistani city to benefit from nuclear energy once the 135 MW KANUPP was connected to the grid on 4 Oct 1972. Now KANUPP-2 (K-2), a third generation nuclear power plant, is ready to supply 1100 MW of power to the national grid on 21st May 2021. It is one of the most advanced and sophisticated nuclear power plant with additional safety and security measures. During its development, K-2 was subjected to negative propaganda by some elements who raised various objectives among which the top few are mentioned as follows:

  • It is very near to the city of Karachi
  • Being a port city there was concern that, as in the case of Fukoshima nuclear plant, a Tsunami might lead to radiation leaks
  • In case of any such eventuality there are no arrangements to evacuate the city in time

In case of K-2 nuclear power plant all these concerns have been addressed and various other precautions are in place. Rabita Forum International organized a seminar on March 1, 2014 to address these concerns and declared with unanimous consent of the academia and the intellectuals of the city, that the K-2 power plant poses no such threat to the city. This power plant has been constructed at height such that it withstand the 12 meter Tsunami waves and even if the waves are higher its automatic safety system ensures that 0% radiation leak by shutting down the power plant. Rabita Forum International (an NGO) by organizing a seminar on March 10, 2015 further addressed these concerns where Dr. Mashiatullah (an expert scientist from PINSTECH) provided ample evidence to support that K-2 poses no threat to the city in the presence of Mr. Naeem Ahmed Mughal (DG SEPA), Prof. Dr. Waqar Ahmed from the department of Environment of Karachi University. Rabita Forum International organized a Seminar on June 4, 2015 to address all concerns relating to the impact on Sea life by the construction of this power plant where Dr. Mashiatullah (PINSTECH), Prof. Dr. Umm – E- Hani (Department of Maritime Karachi University) and Dr. Jamal Ahmed Siddiqui (Head of Department of Sealife), Mr. Waqar Ahmed  Palpoto(Deputy DG SEPA), all endorsed that K-2 poses no threat to sea life. On December 24, 2017 educationists, journalists and students of Karachi visited KANNUP-I, KANNUP-II and KANNUP-III and satisfied with the progress after witnessing its construction system.

Why Chinese Nuclear Power Plant?

This choice was made due to the following reasons:

  • China is trustworthy all season friend
  • China is the only the only country which is practically helping Pakistan to practically manufacture civil nuclear reactors in accordance with international standards including IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).
  • This power plant has one of the best safety measures in place
  • Pakistan had the choice of opting for a state of the art nuclear power plant or for opting for a common outdated power plant and Pakistan chose well
  • This power plant was first tested in China and after successful results, it was operated in Pakistan.

Pakistan civil nuclear power plants and their contribution to the National Grid are mentioned as follows:

S.no Project Name Contribution/ Capacity Status
1 KANNUP -1 80 MW Completed
2 CHASMA-I 330 MW Completed
3 CHASMA-II 335 MW Completed
4 CHASMA-IV 340 MW Completed
5 K-2 1100 MW Completed & full supply on 21st May 2021
6 K-3 1100 MW Completion by Dec 2021


Energy Policy

The energy sector, to a large extent, has been owned and operated by the Government of Pakistan (GoP). During the last two decades, GoP formulated various policies and programs to reform the energy sector.  Besides  improving  the  efficiency  of  public  sector  institutions, policies  have  been  made  to  increase the  private  sector  participation  in  the  development  of  the energy  sector. The  legal  and  institutional  framework  has  been  setup  for  restructuring  of  energy sector entities owned by the public sector and to create a market in which private companies can work under the regulatory authorities to provide energy/electricity on competitive basis.

The  Government  of  Pakistan  formulated  the  Medium  Term  Development  Framework (MTDF)  2005-10,  which translates  the  vision  of  long-term  (2005-30)  sustainable  development into a mix of actions and policies to decide the role of public sector in the development process, and to facilitate the private sector to play its role. The Framework identifies issues in the energy sector  to  design  strategies  for  development  and  policies  for  their  implementation.  The aim of 7 current  energy  policy  is  to  ensure  sustainable  supply  of  energy  to  all  sectors  of  economy  at  a competitive price through development of indigenous energy Jresources (coal, hydro, nuclear and renewables) and reduction in energy import dependence.

Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology

Broad areas in which nuclear energy is contributing to the socio-economic uplift of Pakistan are mentioned as follows:

  • Power generation:

As discussed in detail, nuclear energy serves as an efficient source of power generation. It is a clear source of energy, unlike fossil fuels and the production capacity of a nuclear power plant is much higher when compared with other forms of clean energy sources

  • Developing high-yield stress tolerant crops:

Pakistan has established four agriculture centers that use energy for optimization of important crop varieties, development of better methods for conservation of inputs and products, in addition to maximum use of innovative technologies. More than 89 new high-yielding stress-tolerant crop varieties have been created, we have saline agriculture technology for economic utilization of salt-affected lands, we have developed low-cost Laser Land Leveler that allows efficient irrigation and developed integrated pest management and sterile insect technique.

  • Cancer treatment


We have one of the highest rates of cancer especially amongst women. PAEC has established 18 hospitals that offer cancer treatment to around 0.8 million patients annually. These services will expand further.

  • Design and Fabrication of industrial plants and equipment

The Heavy Mechanical Complex-3(HMC-3)at Taxilais one of the leading organizations in engineering  sector  of  Pakistan  with  the  ultimate  goal  of  self-reliance, indigenization,  import substitution and to provide technical support to the industrial sector in the country. Sophisticated, hi-tech and precise manufacturing distinguish HMC-3 from other organizations. The main aim of HMC-3 is to enhance the design, manufacturing, inspection and testing capabilities  to  produce  hi-tech  equipment,  parts  and  components  for  upcoming  hydel,  thermal, nuclear   power   plants   and   alternate   enegy   projects,   besides   meeting   the   needs   of   other organizations of the country working in oil and gas, energy and industrial sector.HMC-3  has  state  of  the  art  facilities  for  Fabrication,  Forging,  Welding,  Machining, Testing  and  Heat  Treatment.  It is  the  first  engineering  establishment  that  has  been  certified  by the Pakistan  Nuclear Regulatory  Authority (PNRA) to produce Nuclear Safety Class 1, 2 and 3 equipment and components in Pakistan.

  • Covid-19

To meet the need and requirement Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has manufactured and introduced the new ventilator.

  • Human Resource Development

Pakistan has invested extensively in developing indigenous capabilities and human resource to sustain our civil nuclear program. We have established state of the art training facilities and
institutions that impart high level education to scientists and engineers, which form the backbone of our nuclear program.


In conclusion it can be said with devotion that Pakistan is committed to the peaceful use of nuclear technology and is committed to the safety and security of its nuclear program. Pakistan’s commitment towards its environment goals is visible with the country’s investment in clean projects like K-2 and K-3.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong>

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.